Most of the fruit trees that are commonly known as mangos belong to the species Mangifera indica. Mangos belong to the genus Mangifera of the family Anacardiaceae. The genus Mangifera contains several species that bear edible fruit. Mango is a common garden tree throughout the tropics. When ripe, this delicious dessert fruit is particularly high in vitamin A. The fruit is also eaten green, processed into pickles, pulps, jams, and chutneys, and is frozen or dried. The fruit is also an important source of sustenance for birds, bats, insects, and mammals.


Chemical Constituents of Mango
Mangiferin; mangin; piuri-yellow dye; benzoic acid; citric acid; tannin, 10%. The leaves contain 43-46 percent euxanthin acid and some euxanthon. Seed contains a fixed oil, oleostearin. The bark exudate yields a resin, gun, ash, and tannin. Mangostine, 29-hydroxymangiferonic acid, mangiferin and flavonoids have been isolated from the stem bark. Leaves and flowers yield an essential oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool and nerol.

Benefits of Mango in Health Science
Very few knows that mango is an important source in health science. It has a lot of uses and benefits in curing sickness. Below are few of the roles of mango in human healthcare.

Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Study showed that leaf extracts of M. indica possess some antibacterial activity against S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and provides a basis for its medical use in Uganda. Phytochemical study showed saponins, steroids and triterpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, anthracenocides, flavonones, tannins and reducing sugars.

Hematologic benefits: Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats: Stem bark extracts of MI showed positive effects on the haemopoietic system of test rats.

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Hypoglycemic: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycaemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract: Results of the study support the folkloric use of the plant for painful arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as T2DM.
Anti-Clostridium tetany activity: Study showed both the ethereal and ethanolic fractions of leaf extracts showed anti-clostridium tetani activity.

Anti-asthmatic: Mangifera indica stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and histamine: Study showed MI blockage of histaminic and muscarinic receptors, supporting the traditional use of MI stem back in the treatment of asthma.

Immunostimulant: Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice: Study showed increased humoral antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice suggesting a potential for a drug with immunostimulant properties.

Antihyperglycemic: Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat: Study showed leaf extract of MI possess hypoglycemic activity, possibly due to reduction in intestinal absorption of glucose.

Flavonoids / Antihyperlipidemic Effect: Flavonoids from M indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with induced-hyperlipidemia. Degradation and elimination of cholesterol were enhanced.

Antioxidant: Oral administration of flavonoids showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly reduced in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats.

Anti-diarrheal Activity: Study of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of M indica showed significant anti-diarrhoea activity, the effect partly attributed to the effect on intestinal transit.

Anti-Diabetic Activity: Study showed all extracts had significant anti-hyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats.

Ethnopharmacology / Mangiferin: Mangiferin is a major C-glucosylxanthone from the stem bark, leaves, heartwood, roots and fruits of M indica and has been reported to have a variety of pharmacologic activities including antioxidant, radio protective, antitumor, immune modulatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, among others, supporting the numerous traditional uses of the plant.

Polyphenols / Antiulcerogenic Activity: Study showed oral pre-treatment with mangifera leaf decoction decreased the severity of gastric damage in induced-gastric lesions. Two main phenolic compounds isolated were mangiferin and C-glucosyl-benzophenone. The findings show the potential gastro protective properties of the aqueous decoction from M indica leaves.

Anti-Cancer / Polyphenols: A Texas Agrilife Research study by food scientists Dr. Susanne Talcott and Dr Steve Talcott found that polyphenol extracts from mango promote anticancer activity in certain colonn and breast cancer cells in lab. The polyphenols also showed some effects on lung, leukaemia and prostate cancers. Polyphenolics, more specifically gallotannins, belong to a class of bioactive compounds that can prevent of stop cancer cells. Further studies will look into efficacy and clinical relevance.

Antibacterial: Bioactive studies of Mangifera indica against bacterial isolated from urine samples showed the aqueous and ethanolic seed kernel extract good antibacterial activity against E coli, S aureus and S pyogenes. The antibacterial activity may be due to specific phytochemical components. Toxic components were not detected in the seed kernel and also appear to be a safe source of antioxidants.

Anti-Diabetic / Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitoty Activity: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent addition to diabetes therapy, is metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and inhibition of DDP IV enhance GLP-1 which improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Study on the methalic extract of Mangifera indica leaves show the inhibitory effect on DPPIV and present a potential novel approach to diabetes therapy.
Toxicological Studies / No Lethality : Study of stem-bark aqueous extract (MSBE), by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses, with no adverse effects. it was non-irritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. It also had minimal irritancy following vaginal application.

(contributed by user : megalen on 26.05.2011 at 10:33)

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