Let us Start
- Researchers claim to have answered the age-old question of why men store fat in their bellies and women store it in their hips – the fat tissue is almost completely different, genetically speaking that is.”Given the difference in gene expression profiles, a female fat tissue won’t behave anything like a male fat tissue and vice versa,” Dr. Clegg said. “The notion that fat cells between males and females are alike is inconsistent with our findings.”In humans, men are more likely to carry extra weight around their guts while pre-menopausal women store it in their butts, thighs and hips.The bad news for men is that belly, or visceral, fat has been associated with numerous obesity-related diseases including diabetes and heart disease. Women, on the other hand, are generally protected from these obesity-related disorders until menopause, when their ovarian hormone levels drop and fat storage tends to shift from their rear ends to their waists.“Although our new findings don’t explain why women begin storing fat in their bellies after menopause, the results do bring us a step closer to understanding the mechanisms behind the unwanted shift,” Dr. Clegg said.For the study, researchers used a microarray analysis to determine whether male fat cells and female fat cells were different between the waist and hips and if they were different based on gender at a genetic level.
Because the fat distribution patterns of male and female mice are similar to those of humans, the researchers used the animals to compare genes from the belly and hip fat pads of male mice, female mice and female mice whose ovaries had been removed – a condition that closely mimics human menopause. Waist and hip fat (subcutaneous fat) generally accumulates outside the muscle wall, whereas belly fat (visceral fat), a major health concern in men and postmenopausal women, develops around the internal organs.
In addition to the genetic differences among fat tissues, the researchers found that male mice that consumed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks gained more weight than female mice on the same diet. The males’ fat tissue, particularly their belly fat, became highly inflamed, while the females had lower levels of genes associated with inflammation. The female mice whose ovaries had been removed, however, gained weight on the high-fat diet more like the males and deposited this fat in their bellies, also like the males.
“The fat of the female mice whose ovaries had been removed was inflamed and was starting to look like the unhealthy male fat,” Dr. Clegg said. “However, estrogen replacement therapy in the mice reduced the inflammation and returned their fat distribution to that of mice with their ovaries intact.”
Dr. Clegg said the results suggest that hormones made by the ovaries may be critical in determining where fat is deposited.
(source : The Times of India on 17.08.2012)
Tricolor of India
The Republic of India is a large South Asian country rich in ethnic diversity,with over one billion people speaking hundreds of languages. Politically it is the world’s largest liberal democracy. The Indian economy is the fourth largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, and is the world’s second-fastest growing economy. India is also the second most populated country in the world. India has grown significantly, in terms of both population and strategic importance, in the last twenty years attributed to economic reforms.
Strategically located in Asia,constituting most of the Indian subcontinent,India straddles many busy trade routes. It shares its borders with Pakistan,the People’s Republic of China,Myanmar,Bangladesh,Nepal,Bhutan and Afghanistan.Sri Lanka,the Maldives and Indonesia are the nearby island nations in the Indian Ocean. Home to some of the most ancient civilisations in the world, India was formally ruled by the British for almost ninety years before gaining independence in 1947.
Origin of India’s name: The official name India is derived from Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the river Indus and is the most internationally recognisable of the country. The Constitution of India and general usage also recognises Bharat as the other official name of equal status. Bharat comes from the name of an ancient Hindu king and means seeker of knowledge. The third name is Hindustan, meaning land of the Hindus (where Hindu refers to those who dwell to the right of the Indus/Sindhu river) used from the Mughal times onwards.
India,a sub-continent with 5000 year old History. A civilization united by its diversity,richness of culture,the glory of past,the turbulences and triumphs. The landmarks of each era,the achievements of a change,the legacy of a regime. As we walk through the history,India is an amazing discovery and its history is a unique tale of the past.
With the arrival of the Portuguese, French and English traders, advantage was taken of the fractured, debilitate kingdoms to colonise India. In 1857, an insurrection amongst the army sepoys ensued in the popular Revolt of 1857 against the powerful British East India Company; this mobilised resistance, though short-lasting, was caused by the widespread resentment against discriminatory policies of the British. After the revolt, the Indian independence movements started demanding complete independence. On August 15th, 1947, India was finally granted independence from British rule and became a secular republic.
January 26 (Republic Day of India): Republic Day is one of the greatest national celebrations observed throughout the country on January 26 every year. India became Republic on the 26th Jan, 1950. The country became a sovereign democratic republic with a written constitution and an elected parliament.
At the time of independence, although India was under British rule, there were 565 Princely States, big and small, ruled by powerful sovereigns who were protected by treaties of alliance with the British Crown. Without bringing them together, the fundamental unity of the country was not possible. This unification was accomplished by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, whose statesmanship helped to integrate the country into one nation. In a little less than 2 years, all the princely States became a part of the Republic of India.
It was on this date in 1927 that the Indian National Congress, then fighting its non-violent war for freedom, voted for complete independence as against ‘dominion status’. When members of the INC took the pledge to work towards a ‘sovereign democratic republic’ of India.
- Indian Constitution:
When India gained freedom from the British on August 15, 1947 there was the need to regulate the meaning of freedom.Therefore, to have a set of rules and regulations that would guide the nation, the Constituent Assembly met on December 9,1946.The Constituent Assembly was convened and appointed a committee with Dr. B.R.Ambedkar as Chairman to draft the Constitution.
Borrowing from the Constitutions of other countries, for example, the parliamentary form of government from Britain, supremacy of judiciary from the United States, federal system with a strong centre from Canada, directive principles of state policy from Ireland, the idea of concurrent powers and co-operative federalism from Australia, the system of procedure established by law from Japan, the Indian Constitution is an amalgam of all these.
The Indian Constitution, the longest in the world, consist 397 articles and 12 schedules which provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India.The constitution of India was originally written in English It gives the right to vote to all citizens of 18 years and above, unless they are disqualified. Fundamental rights are guaranteed to the citizens, equality of religion and so on.
National motto: Satyameva Jayate (In sanskrit it means Always Truth Alone Triumphs)
- The Great Indian Flag:This is an ancient Indian symbol associated with the powers and changes of nature.
- Officially, the Orange color stands for Courage and sacrifice.
- The White color signifies Peace and truth.
- While Green symbolises Faith and Chivalry.
It is the duty of every Citizen to realise the significance of our flag and pay the honour and respect its commands.
- Official language: Hindi,English
Having being declared a Democratic Republic, the people starting governing themselves according to the Constitution written by the Constituent Assembly. With this, Republic Day became the most important day in the history of India. It is therefore natural that the festivities for the day are a lot more elaborate than that for Independence Day.
The Republic Day Parade
The parade showcasing India’s military might and cultural diversity covers an eight-km route, starting from the Rashtrapathi Bhavan through the picturesque Rajpath down to India Gate before winding up at the historic Red Fort in Old Delhi.
The events of the day begin with the Prime Minister laying a wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyoti (at India Gate).He meets the dignitaries present and unfurls the National Flag.Following the unfurling the National Anthem is played to a 21-gun salute.
After this a brief investiture ceremony takes place during which the President awards India’s top gallantry awards – Param Veer Chakra, Veer Chakra and Maha Veer Chakra. In army these are known as the most prestigious awards for bravery for saving their motherland from the enemy of our country.
Indian struggle continues till now…
After independence,India has fought four wars with its neighbours. From 1975 to 1977, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a “State of Emergency in India”, thereby freezing civil rights and detaining civilians without trial. Sikh riots in 1984 resulted in religious strife in much of India.
Also the destruction of the Babri Masjid in 1992 resulted in religious strife in much of India. In the desert town of Pokhran, in 1998, the Indian government exploded five nuclear warheads, confirming India’s nuclear status. In 1999, India mobilised its military in Kargil, Kashmir to repel Islamist terrorists who, under the auspices of the Pakistani government, were encroaching upon Indian territory.
(source:http://www.indiabook.com/india-information/republic-india.html)Tricolor of India The Republic of India is a large South Asian country rich in ethnic diversity,with over one billion people speaking hundreds of languages. Politically it is the world’s largest liberal democracy. The Indian economy is the fourth largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, and is the world’s second-fastest growing economy. ...
- Indian Constitution:
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