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The Indian Army (IA, Devanāgarī: भारतीय थलसेना, Bhāratīya Thalasēnā) is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 960,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world’s second largest standing volunteer army. Its primary mission is to ensure the national security and defence of the Republic of India from external aggression and threats, and maintaining peace and security within its borders. It also conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural calamities and other disturbances. The President of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Army. The Chief of Army Staff (COAS), a General, is a four star commander and commands the army. There is typically never more than one serving general at any given time in the Army. Two officers have been conferred the rank of field marshal, a 5-star rank and the officer serves as the ceremonial chief.
The Indian Army came into being when India gained independence in 1947, and inherited most of the infrastructure of the British Indian Army that were located in post-partition India. It is a voluntary service and although a provision for military conscription exists in the Indian constitution, it has never been imposed. Since independence, the army has been involved in four wars with neighboring Pakistan and one with the People’s Republic of China. Other major operations undertaken by the army include Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot and Operation Cactus. Apart from conflicts, the army has also been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions.
Indian Army provides that “The Indian Army is the land component of the Indian Armed Forces which exists to uphold the ideals of the Constitution of India.” As a major component of national power, along with the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force, the roles of the Indian Army are as follows:
- Primary: Preserve national interests and safeguard sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of India against any external threats by deterrence or by waging war.
- Secondary: Assist Government agencies to cope with ‘proxy war’ and other internal threats and provide aid to civil authority when requisitioned for the purpose.”
British Indian ArmyFurther information: List of regiments of the Indian Army (1903)
A Military Department was created in the Supreme Government of the East India Company at Kolkata in the year 1776, having the main function to sift and record orders relating to the Army issued by various Departments of the Government of the East India Company.
With the Charter Act of 1833, the Secretariat of the Government of the East India Company was reorganized into four Departments, including a Military Department. The army in the Presidencies of Bengal, Bombay & Madras functioned as respective Presidency Army until April 1895, when the Presidency Armies were unified into a single Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four commands at that point of time, namely Punjab (including the North West Frontier), Bengal, Madras (including Burma) and Bombay (including Sind, Quetta and Aden).
The British Indian Army was a critical force in the primacy of the British Empire in both India, as well as across the world. Besides maintaining the internal security of the British Raj, the Army fought in theaters around the world – Anglo-Burmese Wars, First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, First, Second and Third Anglo-Afghan Wars, First and Second Opium Wars in China, Abyssinia, Boxer Rebellion in China.
First World WarIndian Army personnel during Operation Crusader in Egypt, 1941.Main article: Indian Army during World War I
In the 20th century, the British Indian Army was a crucial adjunct to the British forces in both the World Wars.
1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War I (1914–1918) for the Allies after the United Kingdom made vague promises of self-governance to the Indian National Congress for its support. Britain reneged on its promises after the war, following which the Indian Independence movement gained strength. 74,187 Indian troops were killed or missing in action in the war.
The “Indianisation” of the British Indian Army began with the formation of the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College at Dehradun in March 1912 with the purpose of providing education to the scions of aristocratic and well to do Indian families and to prepare selected Indian boys for admission into the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Indian officers given a King’s commission after passing out were posted to one of the eight units selected for Indianisation. Political pressure due to the slow pace of Indianisation, just 69 officers being commissioned between 1918 and 1932, led to the formation of the Indian Military Academy in 1932 and greater numbers of officers of Indian origin being commissioned.
Second World War
In World War II (1939–1945), 2.58 million Indian soldiers fought for the Allies. In 1939, British officials had no plan for expansion and training of Indian forces, which comprised about 130,000 men. (In addition there were 44,000 men in British units in India in 1939.) Their mission was internal security and defense against a possible Russian threat through Afghanistan. As the war progressed, the size and role of the Indian Army expanded dramatically, and troops were sent to battle fronts as soon as possible. The most serious problem was lack of equipment.
Indian units served in Burma, where in 1944-45 five Indian divisions were engaged along with one British and three African divisions. Even larger numbers operated in the Middle East. Some 87,000 Indian soldiers died in the war. On the opposing side, an Indian National Army was formed under Japanese control, but had little effect on the war.
Upon independence and the subsequent Partition of India in 1947, four of the ten Gurkha regiments were transferred to the British Army. The rest of the British Indian Army was divided between the newly created nations of Republic of India and Republic of Pakistan. The Punjab Boundary Force, which had been formed to help police the Punjab during the partition period, was disbanded, and Headquarters Delhi and East Punjab Command was formed to administer the area.
(source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Army)The Indian Army (IA, Devanāgarī: भारतीय थलसेना, Bhāratīya Thalasēnā) is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 960,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world’s second largest standing volunteer army. Its primary mission is to ensure the national security ...
Articles of faith in Islam
- To believe in the Oneness of Allah.
- To believe in all His Angels.
- To believe in all His Books.
- To believe in all His Prophets.
- To believe in the Day of Resurrection.
- To believe in the Decree of Allah
The Five Pillars of Islam
- Bearing witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
- Observance of Prayer
- Paying Zakat
- Fasting during Ramadhan
- Pilgrimage to the house of Allah.
(more at : http://www.alislam.org/islam/ )Articles of faith in Islam To believe in the Oneness of Allah. To believe in all His Angels. To believe in all His Books. To believe in all His Prophets. To believe in the Day of Resurrection. To believe in the Decree of Allah The Five Pillars of Islam Bearing witness that there is ...
Each picture below has most Beautiful & Meaningful Message.
Let us try and adopt most in our lives from 2012.
That just because two people argue, It doesn’t mean they don’t love each other.
And just because they don’t argue, It doesn’t mean they do love each other.I Believe…That we don’t have to change friends if We understand that friends change.I Believe…That no matter how good a friend is, they’re going to hurt you
every once in a while, and you must forgive them for that.I Believe…
That true friendship continues to grow, even over the longest distance.
Same goes for true love.I Believe…
That you can do something in an instant, That will give you heartache for life.I Believe…
That it’s taking me a long time, To become the person I want to be.I Believe…
That you should always leave loved ones with Loving words. It may be the last time you see them.I Believe…
That you can keep going long after you think you can’t.I Believe…
That we are responsible for what, We do, no matter how we feel.I Believe…
That either you control your attitude or it controls you.I Believe…
That heroes are the people who do what has to be done,
when it needs to be done, regardless of the consequences.I Believe…
That my best friend and I can do anything or nothing and have the best time.I Believe…
That sometimes the people you expect to kick you when you’re down will
be the ones to help you get back up.I Believe…
That sometimes, when I’m angry, I have the right to be angry, but thatdoesn’t give me the right to be cruel.I Believe…
That maturity has more to do with what types of experiences you’ve had And whatyou’ve learned from them, and less to do with how many birthdays you’ve celebrated.I Believe…
That it isn’t always enough to be forgiven by others.
Sometimes you have to learn to forgive yourself.I Believe…
That no matter how bad your heart is broken, the world doesn’t stop for your grief.I Believe…
That our background and circumstances may have influenced who we are, but,
we are responsible for who we become.I Believe…
That you shouldn’t be so eager to find out a secret. It could change your life forever.I Believe…
Two people can look at the exact same thing And see something totally different.I Believe…
That your life can be changed in a matter of hours by people who don’t even know you.I Believe…
That even when you think you have no more to give,
When a friend cries out to you, you will find the strength to help.I Believe…That credentials on the wall do not make you a decent human being.I Believe…
That the people you care about most in life are taken from you too soon.I Believe…That you should share this with all the people that you believe in.I just did. ‘The happiest of people don’t necessarily have the best of everything;They just make the most of everything they have;(contributed by:Mdivakaruni on 21.01.2012)
mdivakaruniEach picture below has most Beautiful & Meaningful Message. Let us try and adopt most in our lives from 2012. I Believe… That just because two people argue, It doesn’t mean they don’t love each other. And just because they don’t argue, It doesn’t mean they do love each other. I Believe… That we don’t have to change friends if ...
Arikul Padm Vināsani, Jay Sevak Trātā,
Jag Jīvan Jagdambā, Harihar Gun Gātā
Singh Ko Vāhan Sāje, Kundal Hai Sāthā.
Dev Vadhū Jaha Gāvat, Nritya Karat Tā Thā.
Satyug Shīl Susundar, Nām Sati Kahlātā.
Hemānchal Ghar Janmī, Sakhiyan Rangrātā.
Shumbh Nishumbh Vidāre, Hemānchal Syātā.
Sahas Bhujā Tanu Dharike, Chakr Liyo Hāthā.
Srishtī Rūp Tū Hī Jananī, Shiv Sang Rangrātā.
Nandī Bhrangī Been Lahī, Sārā Madmātā.
Devan Araj Karat Ham, Chit Ko Lātā.
Gavat De De Tālī, Man Mein Rangrātā.
Shri Pratāp Ārati Maiyā Kī, Jo Koi Gātā.
Sadā Sukhī Nit Rahtā, Such Sampatī Pātā.
Om Jay… !
(Source : http://karwachauthfestival.blogspot.in/2009/09/maa-parvati-ki-aarti.html)Jay Pārvati Mātā, Maiyā Jay Pārvati Mātā., Brahm Sanātan Devī, Shubh Phal Kī Dātā. Om Jay… Arikul Padm Vināsani, Jay Sevak Trātā, Jag Jīvan Jagdambā, Harihar Gun Gātā Om Jay… Singh Ko Vāhan Sāje, Kundal Hai Sāthā. Dev Vadhū Jaha Gāvat, Nritya Karat Tā Thā. Om Jay… Satyug Shīl Susundar, Nām Sati Kahlātā. Hemānchal Ghar Janmī, Sakhiyan Rangrātā. Om Jay… Shumbh Nishumbh Vidāre, Hemānchal Syātā. Sahas Bhujā Tanu ...
Mata Mansa Devi is a Hindu temple dedicated to goddess Mansa Devi, a form of Shakti, in the Panchkula district of Haryana state in India. The temple complex is spread of 100 acres (0.40 km2) of the Shivalik foothills in village Bilaspur, near Mani Majra, and Panchkula, 10 km from Chandi Mandir, another noted Devi shrine in the region, both just outside Chandigarh.
Mansa Devi Temple, Haridwar (Hindi: मंसा देवी मंदिर, हरिद्वार) is a Hindu temple dedicated to goddess Mansa in the holy city of Haridwar in the Uttarakhand state of India. The temple is located atop the Bilwa Parvat on the Sivalik Hills, the southernmost mountain chain of the Himalayas. The temple also known as Bilwa Tirth is one of the Panch Tirth (Five Pilgrimages) within Haridwar.
There are various means of reaching the temple of Mansa Devi in Haridwar. Taxis and auto-rickshaws are frequently available to get to the temple. Rope Way is the best means of reaching at the top of Mansa Devi Temple, best suitable for olde people also.