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  • Worship of Lord Krishna

    Vaishnavism

    The worship of Krishna is part of Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu as the Supreme God and venerates His associated Avatars, their consorts, and related saints and teachers. Krishna is especially looked upon as a full manifestation of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself. However the exact relationship between Krishna and Vishnu is complex and diverse, where Krishna is sometimes considered an independent deity, supreme in his own right. Out of many deities, Krishna is particularly important, and traditions of Vaishnava lines are generally centered either on Vishnu or on Krishna, as supreme. The term Krishnaism has been used to describe the sects of Krishna, reserving term “Vaishnavism” for sects focusing on Vishnu in which Krishna is an Avatar, rather than as a transcendent Supreme Being.

    All Vaishnava traditions recognise Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu; others identify Krishna with Vishnu; while traditions, such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha Sampradaya and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, regard Krishna as the svayam bhagavan, original form of God, or the Lord himself. Swaminarayan, the founder of the Swaminarayan Sampraday also worshipped Krishna as God himself. “Greater Krishnaism” corresponds to the second and dominant phase of Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of the Vasudeva, Krishna, and Gopala of late Vedic period. Today the faith has a significant following outside of India as well.

    Early traditions

    An image of Bala Krishna displayed during Janmashtami celebrations at a Swaminarayan Temple in London

    The deity Krishna-Vasudeva (kṛṣṇa vāsudeva “Krishna, the son of Vasudeva“) is historically one of the earliest forms of worship in Krishnaism and Vaishnavism. It is believed to be a significant tradition of the early history of the worship of Krishna in antiquity.[7][87] This tradition is considered as earliest to other traditions that led to amalgamation at a later stage of the historical development. Other traditions are Bhagavatism and the cult of Gopala, that along with the cult of Bala Krishna form the basis of current tradition of monotheistic religion of Krishna. Some early scholars would equate it with Bhagavatism, and the founder of this religious tradition is believed to be Krishna, who is the son of Vasudeva, thus his name is Vāsudeva; he is said to be historically part of the Satvata tribe, and according to them his followers called themselves Bhagavatas and this religion had formed by the 2nd century BC (the time of Patanjali), or as early as the 4th century BC according to evidence in Megasthenes and in the Arthasastra of Kautilya, when Vāsudeva was worshiped as supreme deity in a strongly monotheistic format, where the supreme being was perfect, eternal and full of grace. In many sources outside of the cult, the devotee or bhakta is defined as Vāsudevaka. The Harivamsa describes intricate relationships between Krishna Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha that would later form a Vaishnava concept of primary quadrupled expansion, or avatar.

    Bhakti tradition

    Bhakti, meaning devotion, is not confined to any one deity. However Krishna is an important and popular focus of the devotional and ecstatic aspects of Hindu religion, particularly among the Vaishnava sects. Devotees of Krishna subscribe to the concept of lila, meaning ‘divine play’, as the central principle of the Universe. The lilas of Krishna, with their expressions of personal love that transcend the boundaries of formal reverence, serve as a counterpoint to the actions of another avatar of Vishnu: Rama, “He of the straight and narrow path of maryada, or rules and regulations.”

    The bhakti movements devoted to Krishna became prominent in southern India in the 7th to 9th centuries AD. The earliest works included those of the Alvar saints of the Tamil country. A major collection of their works is the Divya Prabandham. The Alvar Andal‘s popular collection of songs Tiruppavai, in which she conceives of herself as a gopi, is the most famous of the oldest works in this genre. Kulasekaraazhvaar‘s Mukundamala was another notable work of this early stage.

    Spread of the Krishna-bhakti movement

    The movement spread rapidly from northern India into the south, with the Sanskrit poem Gita Govinda of Jayadeva (12th century AD) becoming a landmark of devotional, Krishna-based literature. It elaborated a part of the Krishna legend—his love for one particular gopi, called Radha, a minor character in Bhagavata Purana but a major one in other texts like Brahma Vaivarta Purana. By the influence of Gita Govinda, Radha became inseparable from devotion to Krishna.

    While the learned sections of the society well versed in Sanskrit could enjoy works like Gita Govinda or Bilvamangala‘s Krishna-Karnamritam, the masses sang the songs of the devotee-poets, who composed in the regional languages of India. These songs expressing intense personal devotion were written by devotees from all walks of life. The songs of Meera and Surdas became epitomes of Krishna-devotion in north India.

    Krishna (left) with the flute with gopi-consort Radha, Bhaktivedanta Manor, Watford, England

    These devotee-poets, like the Alvars before them, were aligned to specific theological schools only loosely, if at all. But by the 11th century AD, Vaishnava Bhakti schools with elaborate theological frameworks around the worship of Krishna were established in north India. Nimbarka (11th century AD), Vallabhacharya (15th century AD) and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (16th century AD) were the founders of the most influential schools. These schools, namely Nimbarka Sampradaya, Vallabha Sampradaya and Gaudiya Vaishnavism respectively, see Krishna as the supreme god, rather than an avatar, as generally seen.

    In the Deccan, particularly in Maharashtra, saint poets of the Varkari sect such as Dnyaneshwar, Namdev, Janabai, Eknath and Tukaram promoted the worship of Vithoba,[24] a local form of Krishna, from the beginning of the 13th century until the late 18th century. In southern India, Purandara Dasa and Kanakadasa of Karnataka composed songs devoted to the Krishna image of Udupi. Rupa Goswami of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, has compiled a comprehensive summary of bhakti named Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu.

    In the West

    Since 1966, the Krishna-bhakti movement has also spread outside India. This is largely due to the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement.[8] The movement was founded by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who was instructed by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, to write about Krishna in English and to share the Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy with people in the Western world.

    In the performing arts

    A Kathakali performer as Krishna.

    While discussing the origin of Indian theatre, Horwitz talks about the mention of the Krishna story in Patanjali‘s Mahabhashya (c. 150 BC), where the episodes of slaying of Kamsa (Kamsa Vadha) and “Binding of the heaven storming titan” (Bali Bandha) are described. Bhasa‘s Balacharitam and Dutavakyam (c. 400 BC) are the only Sanskrit plays centered on Krishna written by a major classical dramatist. The former dwells only on his childhood exploits and the latter is a one-act play based on a single episode from the Mahābhārata when Krishna tries to make peace between the warring cousins.

    From the 10th century AD, with the growing bhakti movement, Krishna became a favorite subject of the arts. The songs of the Gita Govinda became popular across India, and had many imitations. The songs composed by the Bhakti poets added to the repository of both folk and classical singing.

    The classical Indian dances, especially Odissi and Manipuri, draw heavily on the story. The ‘Rasa lila‘ dances performed in Vrindavan shares elements with Kathak, and the Krisnattam, with some cycles, such as Krishnattam, traditionally restricted to the Guruvayur temple, the precursor of Kathakali.

    Krishna as depicted in Yakshagana, which emerged as part of Bhakti tradition in Karnataka.

    The Sattriya dance, founded by the Assamese Vaishnava saint Sankardeva, extols the virtues of Krishna. Medieval Maharashtra gave birth to a form of storytelling known as the Hari-Katha, that told Vaishnava tales and teachings through music, dance, and narrative sequences, and the story of Krishna one of them. This tradition spread to Tamil Nadu and other southern states, and is now popular in many places throughout India.

    Narayana Tirtha‘s (17th century AD) Krishna-Lila-Tarangini provided material for the musical plays of the Bhagavata-Mela by telling the tale of Krishna from birth until his marriage to Rukmini. Tyagaraja (18th century AD) wrote a similar piece about Krishna called Nauka-Charitam. The narratives of Krishna from the Puranas are performed in Yakshagana, a performance style native to Karnataka‘s coastal districts. Many movies in all Indian languages have been made based on these stories. These are of varying quality and usually add various songs, melodrama, and special effects.

     

    (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna

    Vaishnavism Rasa Lila in Manipuri dance style. The worship of Krishna is part of Vaishnavism, which regards Vishnu as the Supreme God and venerates His associated Avatars, their consorts, and related saints and teachers. Krishna is especially looked upon as a full manifestation of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself. However the exact relationship between Krishna ...
  • Railway Therapy Practiced In Indonesia

    While it might look like they are protesting against something or staging a gruesome mass suicide, the people of Rawa Buaya are actually looking to cure their illnesses by laying on the train tracks.

    In the Indonesian town of Rawa Buaya, people believe that electrical energy carried by the railroad tracks can cure disease.

    From young children to old folk, they all lie on train tracks passing through their settlement, hoping the electric energy from them will cure their various sicknesses. Not even the potentially lethal trains passing on opposite tracks don’t seem to be scaring these Indonesians away.

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    (source : http://interesting-amazing-facts.blogspot.in/search/label/strange%20facts)

    While it might look like they are protesting against something or staging a gruesome mass suicide, the people of Rawa Buaya are actually looking to cure their illnesses by laying on the train tracks. In the Indonesian town of Rawa Buaya, people believe that electrical energy carried by the railroad tracks can cure disease. From young children ...
  • Who is really responsible

    VIKRAMADITYA’S JUDGEMENT

    *Once there lived an old and pious man, renowned for his honesty. One day his neighbor, a rich merchant comes to him with a request. The merchant was leaving on a voyage and wants the old man to safeguard his wealth, until his return. The old man agrees and with God as witness promises to protect and safeguard the merchant’s wealth. *

    *The old man then entrusts the safe keep of the merchant’s wealth to his son, from whom he takes an oath of propriety and honesty. Slowly the son starts dipping into the merchants wealth, people notice this and warn the old man of the son’s misdeeds. The old man calls his son asks him to explain, he also reminds him of his oath on following the right path. The son rubbishes the accusations as rumors and the idle gossip of jealous people, who could not bear to see his prosperity. The old man accepts the son’s explanation and things go on as before.*

    *The merchant returns and demands his wealth. The old man calls his son, who hands over a quarter of the merchant’s wealth saying that is all there was. The merchant realizing that he has been cheated approaches the King. The King listens to the merchant’s complaint and summons the old man. The old man comes to the court with his son and handing him over to the King says “your majesty, the merchant is right. My son has confessed to the crime. Please punish him.”*

    *The king has the son flogged and imprisoned. He then praises the old man’s honesty and dismisses the case. But the merchant demands punishment for the old man saying, “I have still not received justice. I had entrusted my wealth to the old man which he swore by God to safeguard. The old man’s integrity is intact, but what of me, I have been robbed of my life’s savings, and made a pauper. It was the old man’s decision to entrust my wealth to his son for safe keeping that has caused this loss. As far as I am concerned the old man is the real culprit, and should be punished.*

    *The king is astounded by this demand. The old man, was neither a party to the theft nor did he benefit from it. In fact, he had sent his son to jail. Yet, the merchant was asking for the old man’s punishment.*

    *The Bettal asks Vikramaditya, “What should be the Kings decision.”*

    *Vikramaditya’s replies, “Though the old man is innocent of the actual theft, he is guilty of dereliction of duty. The son’s crime was a straight forward one, the old man’s was a graver crime. He did nothing to protect the merchant’s wealth. Far from being vigilant he failed to take action even when he was warned of his son’s misdeeds. Because of his laxity the merchant is condemned to a life of penury. He should be punished.”

    NOW TRY TO SEE THE HAPPENINGS IN INDIA & 2G SCAM IN LIGHT OF THE ABOVE STORY:

    *India 2010, Dr. Manmohan Singh, esteemed economist, former Governor of RBI, Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission, former Finance Minister, a man whose personal ethics and integrity are unblemished, takes oath to protect and safeguard the Nation and its assets. He appoints Raja, as his Cabinet Minister for IT & Telecom.*

    * Unlike the story, this heist of a precious national asset is carried out in full view of Dr. Manmohan Singh and his cabinet colleagues. Newspapers across the country cry out at this outrage in front page headlines.*

    * The Indian Constitution grants the Prime Minister absolute power in running the country. He is the head of the Government and the Union Cabinet functions at his pleasure. As per the Transaction of Business Rules the Prime Minister has the unrestricted right to demand and get any file, any record from any Ministry. Dr. Man Mohan Singh could have at any time stopped this heist of a National asset, yet he chose to remain silent. The Minister’s failure to exercise his constitutional rights has caused irreparable loss to the Nation.*

    * Dr. Singh did not profit personally from Raja’s shenigans, but his failure to act, to honor the oath of office, to protect and safeguard the nation and its wealth is unforgivable. Like the old man, he has sacked Raja from his ministerial berth, but does his culpability end there.*

    * The people of India had entrusted their faith and the future of the Nation in Dr. Manmohan Singh, believing him to be a man of integrity and honesty, and not to Raja.
    Does dismissing Raja absolve Dr. Singh or like the old man is he guilty of dereliction of duty and failure to safeguard the Nation and its citizens.
    Does he deserve punishment?

    *who can decide here?…..

     

     

    (source: SN on 29.06.2011)

    VIKRAMADITYA’S JUDGEMENT *Once there lived an old and pious man, renowned for his honesty. One day his neighbor, a rich merchant comes to him with a request. The merchant was leaving on a voyage and wants the old man to safeguard his wealth, until his return. The old man agrees and with God as witness promises ...
  • Pleasant Press Note

    Sharing one incident…

    After Modi’s Trichy youth conference, the very next morning when police were clearing up their mini-control room, they found 5 strange boys who were roaming there with bags. When police enquired them “sir, we are from Subramaniapuram in Trichy. Whatever political meeting or conference is held in this ground, we come here on the same night or morning hours to collect the Liquor bottles to sell in the scrap shop for 50 paisa to 1 rupee per bottle and we used to earn Rs 200 to Rs 400 on each such event. Even in the last DMK meeting the very next day we collected around 1500 bottles. But for Modi’s BJP meeting, we could not find even a single bottle in the whole ground. We are coming around and around and not a single bottle in any corner of the G Corner ground in Trichy, we are much disappointed, sir!”.

    Police seem were stunned and pleasantly surprised. This is what Modi magic does in this nation. Modi is the one who can lead our nation and make everyone prosper with hard work in right direction and proper approach. This funny but interesting anecdote was published by a statewide local daily Dinamalar. I have just translated and posting it here for rest of the nation; We should realise Modi is liked by every patriotic person in this nation especially by well educated, well mannered professionals and even normal public across the nation.

     

    (user : vaidhy on 10.05.2013)

    Sharing one incident…   After Modi’s Trichy youth conference, the very next morning when police were clearing up their mini-control room, they found 5 strange boys who were roaming there with bags. When police inquired them “sir, we are from Subramaniapuram in Trichy. Whatever political meeting or conference is held in this ground, we come ...
  • Diabetes Food

    GS SODHI was 45 years old when he was diagnosed with diabetes. For the next six years, he avoided medicines and relied on yoga to control sugar level. It was only when he fell sick with bronchial tuberculosis and had a checkup that he discovered his fasting sugar level had shot up beyond 200. The doctor said that the tuberculosis wasn’t treatable until his sugar level was brought down. Insulin shots were begun along with a tuberculosis regimen. Still, his diabetes couldn’t be brought under control.

    Sodhi began experiencing side-effects of the diseae: The constant thirst and excessive sweating caused by diabetes interfered with his ability to work in his factory. “My reputation was that of a hyperactive person but lethargy over-took me,: he says. He suffered for ever 15 years until he decided to adopt his wife Roop’s eating regimen. She too was a diabetic who suffered from other complications such as high blood pressure and throid problems. But a consulation with a lifestyle specialist who advised dietary modifications helped. Changes began at the dining table and six months later, she was off the sugary track. Her husband followed suit. “I was doubtful about whether I would be able to manage all the restrictions, as I loved those aloo paranthas. But I decided to try and had a diet plan charted out for myself,” he says.

    The Plan

    Breakfast: Sugarless green tea along with 5-7 peices of almonds, soaked overnight and an apple or orange.

    An hour-long session in the gym and yoga practice followed by protein shake coupled with three eggs-one with yolk and two without. One glass of vegetable juice with 10 pieces of almonds.

    Lunch: Combination of curd, a cup of whole dal and green veggies. This woule be followed by nuts and coconut water / lemon juice.

    Dinner: seventy grams of fish or chicken with two helpings of green veggies.

    For the last 18 months, Sodhi has followed this schedule and is completely off insulin shots. “Today my fasting sugar level has dropped fron 240 to 130. I have parted ways with my favourite foods but it’s worth the sacrifice,” says Sodhi. His wife Roop’s health has improved too: Her sugar levels, high blood pressure and thyroid are under control. Sodhi feels that the key to keeping diabetes in check is to be determined to get rid of it at any cost. “It sounds tough, but if you stick to a controlled regime, it isn’t that difficult to maintain it,” he says.

    GS SODHI was 45 years old when he was diagnosed with diabetes. For the next six years, he avoided medicines and relied on yoga to control sugar level. It was only when he fell sick with bronchial tuberculosis and had a checkup that he discovered his fasting sugar level had shot up beyond 200. The ...



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