Let us Start
Kidneys are two small bean shaped organs, each about the size of the fist, located on either side of the spine just above the waist at the small of the back. It is a part of the urinary system. Each kidney is about 10cm long, 5-6cm wide, 2.5cm thick and weighs between 115 to 170g in the adult human. The right kidney is situated slightly lower than the left because the liver pushes it down.
The outer portion of the kidney called cortex is composed of blood vessels and urine tubes and is supported by a fibrous matrix. Deep to the cortex lies the medulla which is divided into 10-20 conical regions called renal pyramids. Renal pyramids also known as the malphighian pyramids contains the secreting apparatus and tubules. Each pyramid together with the associated overlying cortex forms a renal lobe.
The tip of each pyramid (called a papilla) empties into a calyx, which empties into the renal pelvis. Pelvis forms a small reservoir for urine produced by the kidney. The whole kidney is covered by a membrane called renal capsule.
The cortex and the medulla are made up of nephrons, which is the most basic functional units of the kidney and each kidney contains about a millions of nephrons. Filtration, re-absorption and secretion of the blood occurs in the nephron. Each nephron is made of a glomerulus and a tubule. The glomerulus is like a miniature filtering or sieving device while the tubule is a tiny tube like structure attached to the glomerulus.
The kidneys regulate the body’s fluid volume, mineral composition and acidity. The vital function of kidneys is to separate urea, mineral salts toxins and other waste products from the blood. They preserve water, salt and electrolytes; controls the level of chemicals like sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, phosphate and hydrogen. In addition to this, kidneys release three important hormones. They are Erythropoietin (EPO) which stimulates the bones to make red blood cells, Renin which regulates blood pressure and Active form of vitamin D which helps to maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body.
The waste products are generated in the body from normal metabolic processes including the breakdown of active tissues, ingested foods, and other substances. To separate these waste and extra water, the blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, creates urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The clean blood flows back to other parts of the body. This process takes place throughout the life of the kidneys. The kidneys process about 200 liters of blood every day and produce about 2 liters of urine. For maintaining life at least one kidney must function properly.
When the kidneys become diseased or damaged, they lose their ability to perform their vital functions. As a result, waste products and excess fluids build up in the blood, become toxic and damage the body. This may cause a variety of symptoms, particularly swelling of the hands and feet, shortness of breath, and a frequent urge to urinate.
Most kidney disease attack the nephron and destroy them which cause to lose their filtering capacity. Diabetes and high blood pressureare the most common cause of kidney disease. Injury, exposure to toxins and certain medications and trauma can lead to kidney disease.
If the blood supply to the kidneys is reduced considerably from blood loss, a fall in blood pressure, severe dehydration or lack of salt, then the kidneys may be damaged. This may lead to permanent damage to the kidney tissue.
Kidney (Renal) failure occurs when the kidneys partly or completely lose their filtering ability. Acute and Chronic are the two types of Renal failure. When kidney failure happens suddenly it is called Acute renal failure. Chronic renal failure usually develops slowly, with few signs or symptoms in the early stage. Mild kidney disease is often called renal insufficiency.
Symptoms to look out for
If any of the following symptoms are noticed, do not avoid it. Consult a physician to know the cause of the symptoms.
1. Changes in Urination
• increased urination at night.
• passing of very small amounts of urine.
• urine may be foamy or bubbly.
• blood in urine
• having difficulty in urinating
2. Swelling, particularly of the hands and feet, and puffiness around the eyes.
3. Persistent fatigue
4. Skin Rash/ Itching
5. Unpleasant taste in the mouth/Ammonia Breath
6. Nausea and Vomiting
7. Shortness of Breath
8. Feeling Cold
9. Dizziness and Trouble Concentrating
10. Leg/ Flank Pain
Common Kidney Diseases
Acute Renal Failure Chronic Kidney Disease Glomerulonephritis Kidney Stones Polycystic Kidney Disease
(source: http://webindia123.com/health/disease/kidney/common/kidney.htm)Kidneys are two small bean shaped organs, each about the size of the fist, located on either side of the spine just above the waist at the small of the back. It is a part of the urinary system. Each kidney is about 10cm long, 5-6cm wide, 2.5cm thick and weighs between 115 to 170g ...
An elephant asked a camel, “Why are your breasts on your back?”
‘Well,’ said the camel, ‘I think that’s an entirely inappropriate question from somebody whose dick is on his face.’
(contributed by:Mohan Rao on 28.06.2011)An elephant asked a camel, “Why are your breasts on your back?” ‘Well,’ said the camel, ‘I think that’s an entirely inappropriate question from somebody whose dick is on his face.’ (contributed by:Mohan Rao on 28.06.2011)
- A SHIP ABOUT TO SINK — Pritish Nandy
A very well-written article! Please read all the way:I like Manmohan Singh. He has immaculate credentials. It’s these
credentials that have seen the UPA through its most stormy years. If
Singh wasn’t Prime Minister, the Government would have collapsed a
long time back. No, not because of its inherent coalition contradictionsbut because it’s simply not possible for so many crooks with conflictingagendas to loot the country together, almost as if in perfect unison.The Indian Political Philharmonic Orchestra must be the world’s mostamazing cacophony of rogues, rascals and robbers. Luckily for the UPA,there was always Singh to fall back on. Most middle class Indians refuseto be cynical. We know exactly what’s happening around us, we criticizeit constantly, but when it comes to the crunch we all rally around thenation and the flag. We are not bat-brained paranoids. Neither are wewide-eyed innocents ready to buy into every ridiculous explanationthrown our way to explain the loot that’s taking place in broad daylight.But the latest season of scams has flummoxed all. This is not just Alibabaand his chaalis chors.Everyone among the chaalis chors is another Alibaba with his own forty
thieves. That’s the way the pyramid of crime operates today. But becauseSingh, soft spoken and self effacing, is the face of this Government, Indiahas kept faith.But now, enough is enough. Neither Singh nor PranabMukherjee, nor anyone else is capable any more of saving this Government.It’s neck deep in its own sticky sleaze. What’s worse, you haven’t seen anything
yet. All these scams are but the tip of the iceberg. Talk to anyone
and you will get an instant dhobi list of scams in queue to break.No, I am not saying this. Congress leaders are, in private. Look at Singh,wan and way lost. Or Mukherjee going apopleptic in faux anger becausehe has to defend what he knows is indefensible. They look less convincingthan Rakhi Sawant playing Joan of Arc.The problem is: We have voted into power the stupidest bunch of thieves.
They are such losers that they can’t steal a hamburger without leaving
ketchup stains all over. Yet they are constantly trying to pull off
the biggest scams in history. From Rs 64 crore in Bofors, they have
upped the ante to Rs 170,0000 crore in 2G and no, I am not including
hundreds of aircraft Air India bought while sinking into bankruptcy
and preposterous sums spent on arms deals that have made India theworld’s second largest arms buyer when we can’t provide food andhealthcare to 60% Indians. Our leaders are making deals on the slywith greedy builders, land sharks, illegal mining companies, corporatefixers, shady arms dealers and, O yes, US diplomats who want to manipulateour political choices. And, what’s more amazing, they do it like bunglingidiots. Even Inspector Clouseau can outwit them.But that doesn’t mean they are not malevolent. These are people who
are destroying India from within. They are not just robbing you, me,
and the exchequer. They are destroying institutions, subverting laws,
vandalizing our heritage and history, and trying to build a dazzling,
amoral edifice of crime and corruption unprecedented in the nation’s
history. It’s a scary scenario that could turn the land of the Mahatma
into one gigantic Gotham City with a flyover to hell.But my question is more basic: Can we trust these idiots to run this great nation?If you travel and meet people across India, you will realize that for
every scam that breaks—and currently there’s one breaking every
week—there are ten more waiting in line. The media has never had it so
good! And it’s the same gang whose names keep coming up. Kalmadi,
Satish Sharma, Sant Chatwal, Ashok Chavan. The NCP lot.
The DMK. And everyone, in private, is protesting his own innocence,
pointing fingers at someone else. It’s a sure sign of a collapsing
regime. It’s what happened when Rajiv with a staggering majority in
parliament lost his mandate to govern. Rats alone don’t leap off a
sinking ship. So do everyone else.So even though Singh, like Pontiffs Pilate, may wash his hands off
every scam that hits the headlines, the fact is: The longer this
Government stays, the more compromised the Congress will be, and the
less capable of coming back to power. You can’t allow the sovereignty
of a nation to be compromised just to win a confidence vote. You can’t
bribe MPs to get your way in parliament. You can’t allow a shady
hotelier, with CBI cases against him, to play roving diplomat and,
worse, give him a Padma Bhushan for it. You can’t appoint a tainted
bureaucrat as the nation’s CVC. You can’t file a FIR against a corrupt CMand then allow him to melt away. You can’t let the prime witness to thenation’s biggest scam, who offered to turn approver, be murdered in broaddaylight and pretend it’s a suicide.If this is the best this Government can do, it’s time to step down.(contributed by : Amr on 26.08.2012)A SHIP ABOUT TO SINK — Pritish Nandy A very well-written article! Please read all the way: I like Manmohan Singh. He has immaculate credentials. It’s these credentials that have seen the UPA through its most stormy years. If Singh wasn’t Prime Minister, the Government would have collapsed a long time back. No, not because of its inherent coalition contradictions but ...
- A pessimist sees only the dark side of the clouds and mopes, a philosopher sees both sides and shrugs, an optimist doesn’t see the clouds at all, he’s walking on them.
- A wise man will make more opportunities then he finds.
- Accept the things to which fate binds you. And love the people with whom fate brings you together, but do so with all your heart.
- Aim at the stars, For even if you fall short, you will land on the moon.
- Always remember, others may hate you but those who hate you don’t win unless you hate them. And then you destroy yourself.
- Continue reading → A pessimist sees only the dark side of the clouds and mopes, a philosopher sees both sides and shrugs, an optimist doesn’t see the clouds at all, he’s walking on them. A wise man will make more opportunities then he finds. Accept the things to which fate binds you. And love the people with whom fate ...
An Irish priest was transferred to Texas. Father O’Malley rose from his
bed one morning. It was a fine spring day in his new west Texas mission
parish. He walked to the window of his bedroom to get a deep breath of the
beautiful day outside. He then noticed there was a jackass lying dead in
the middle of his front lawn. He promptly called the local police station.
The conversation went like this: “Good morning. This is Sergeant Jones. How
might I help you?”
“And the best of the day te yerself. This is Father O’Malley at St. Ann ‘s
Catholic Church. There’s a jackass lying dead in me front lawn and would ye
be so kind as to send a couple o’yer lads to take care of the matter?”
Sergeant Jones, considering himself quite a wit and recognizing the foreign
accent, thought he would have a little fun with the good father, replied,
“Well now Father, it was always my impression that you people took care of
the last rites!”
There was dead silence on the line for a long moment…
Father O’Malley then replied: “Aye, ’tis certainly true; but we are also
obliged to notify the next of kin first, which is the reason for me call.”
(contributed by : amr on 23.4.2013)An Irish priest was transferred to Texas. Father O’Malley rose from his bed one morning. It was a fine spring day in his new west Texas mission parish. He walked to the window of his bedroom to get a deep breath of the beautiful day outside. He then noticed there was a jackass lying dead in the middle of ...