# Let us Start

## How to keep fit without going to the Health Centres

[Contributed by: Chetan Bhatt on 03/03/2013]

## The world’s ‘poorest’ president

It’s a common grumble that politicians’ lifestyles are far removed from

those of their electorate. Not so in Uruguay. Meet the president – who

lives on a ramshackle farm and gives away most of his pay.

Laundry is strung outside the house. The water comes from a

well in a yard, overgrown with weeds. Only two police officers and

Manuela, a three-legged dog, keep watch outside. This is the residence of the president of Uruguay, Jose Mujica, whose lifestyle clearly differs sharply from that of most other world leaders.

President Mujica has shunned the luxurious house that the Uruguayan state provides for its leaders and opted to stay at his wife’s farmhouse, off a dirt road outside the capital, Montevideo.

Continue reading the main story “Start Quote I may seem a madand eccentric old man. But this is a free choice ”Jose Mujica The president and his wife work the land themselves, growing flowers. This austere lifestyle – and the fact that Mujica donates about 90% of his monthly salary, equivalent to $12,000 (£7,500), to

charity – has led him to be labeled the poorest president in the world.

“I’ve lived like this most of my life,” he says, sitting on an old chair in his garden, using a cushion favored by Manuela the dog. “I can live well with what I have.” His charitable donations – which benefit poor people and small entrepreneurs – mean his salary is roughly in line with the average Uruguayan income of $775 (£485) a month.In 2010, his annual personal wealth declaration – mandatory

for officials in Uruguay – was $1,800 (£1,100), the value of his 1987

Volkswagen Beetle. All the president’s wealth – a 1987 VW Beetle

This year, he added half of his wife’s assets – land, tractors and a house – reaching $215,000 (£135,000). That’s still only about two-thirds of Vice-President Danilo

Astori’s declared wealth, and a third of the figure declared by Mujica’s predecessor as president, Tabare Vasquez. Elected in 2009, Mujica spent the 1960s and 1970s as part of

the Uruguayan guerrilla Tupamaros, a leftist armed group inspired by

the Cuban revolution.

He was shot six times and spent 14 years in jail. Most of his

detention was spent in harsh conditions and isolation, until he was

freed in 1985 when Uruguay returned to democracy.

Those years in jail, Mujica says, helped shape his outlook on life. Continue reading the main story Tupamaros: Guerrillas to government*Left-wing guerrilla group formed initially from poor sugar cane workers and students

*Named after Inca king Tupac Amaru

*Key tactic was political kidnapping – UK ambassador Geoffrey Jackson held for eight months in 1971

*Crushed after 1973 coup led by President Juan Maria Bordaberry

*Mujica was one of many rebels jailed, spending 14 years behind bars – until constitutional government returned in 1985*He played key role in transforming Tupamaros into a legitimate

political party, which joined the Frente Amplio (broad front) coalition*Uruguay profile “I’m called ‘the poorest president’, but I don’t feel poor. Poor people are those who only work to try to keep an expensive lifestyle, and always want more and more,” he says.

“This is a matter of freedom. If you don’t have many possessions then you don’t need to work all your life like a slave to sustain them, and therefore you have more time for yourself,” he says.

“I may seem a mad and eccentric old man. But this is a free choice.”

The Uruguayan leader made a similar point when he addressed the Rio+20 summit in June this year: “We’ve been talking all afternoon about sustainable development. To get the masses out of poverty. “But what are we thinking? Do we want the model of

development and consumption of the rich countries? I ask you now: what

would happen to this planet if Indians would have the same proportion of cars per household than Germans? How much oxygen would we have left?

“Does this planet have enough resources so seven or eight

billion can have the same level of consumption and waste that today is

seen in rich societies? It is this level of hyper-consumption that is harming our planet.”

Mujica accuses most world leaders of having a “blind obsession to achieve growth with consumption, as if the contrary would mean the end of the world”.Mujica could have followed his predecessors into a grand official residence

But however large the gulf between the vegetarian Mujica and

these other leaders, he is no more immune than they are to the ups and downs of political life.“Many sympathies with President Mujica because of how he lives. But this does not stop him for being criticized for how the government is doing,” says Ignacio Zuasnabar, a Uruguayan pollster.

The Uruguayan opposition says the country’s recent economic prosperity has not resulted in better public services in health and education, and for the first time since Mujica’s election in 2009 his popularity has fallen below 50%. This year he has also been under fire because of two

controversial moves. Uruguay’s Congress recently passed a bill which legalized abortions for pregnancies up to 12 weeks. Unlike his predecessor, Mujica did not veto it.

Instead, he chose to stay on his wife’s farm He is also supporting a debate on the legalization of the consumption of cannabis, in a bill that would also give the state the

monopoly over its trade. “Consumption of cannabis is not the most worrying thing, drug-dealing

is the real problem,”. he says. However, he doesn’t have to worry too much about his popularity rating – Uruguayan law means he is not allowed to seek re-election in 2014. Also, at 77, he is likely to retire from politics altogether before long. When he does, he will be eligible for a state pension – and unlike some other former presidents, he may not find the drop in income

too hard to get used to.(Contributed by : Amr on 27.11.2012)

## A Devoted Mathematician – Ramanaujam

### Born: 22 December 1887 in Erode, Tamil Nadu state, India

Died: 26 April 1920 in Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu state, IndiaHe developed an indomitable affection and love towards mathematics and possesses exceptional mathematical abilities. His role model is great Indian mathematician “Ramanujan”. During graduation, He submitted papers on Number Theory, which were published in Mathematical Spectrum and The Mathematical Gazette. He worked hard and dreamed of getting into one of the world’s best university “Cambridge”. And one day he got it, admission to Cambridge.

But…

Very soon he realized that his father cannot afford his education at Cambridge. He and his father searched helplessly for a sponsor all over India but nobody came up. And one day his family’s only breadwinner: his father died and his last hope of getting good education diminished. He gave up the dream of Cambridge and came back to his home in Patna, Bihar.He would work on Mathematics during day time and would sell papads in evenings with his mother, who had started a small business from home, to support her family. He also tutored students in maths to earn extra money. Since Patna University library did not have foreign journals, for his own study, he would travel every weekend on a six-hour train journey to Varanasi, where his younger brother, learning violin under N. Rajam, had a hostel room. Thus he would spend Saturday and Sunday at the Central Library, BHU and return to Patna on Monday morning.He rented a classroom for Rs 500 a month, and began his own institute, the Ramanujam School of Mathematics (RSM). Within the space of year, his class grew from two students to thirty-six, and after three years there were almost 500 students enrolled. Then in early 2000, when a poor student came to him seeking coaching for IIT-JEE, who couldn’t afford the annual admission fee due to poverty, Kumar was motivated to start the Super 30 program in 2003, for which he is now well-known.Every year in August, since 2003, the Ramanujan School of Mathematics, now a trust, holds a competitive test to select 30 students for the ‘Super 30’ scheme. About 4,000 to 5,000 students appear at the test, and eventually he takes thirty intelligent students from economically backward sections which included beggars, hawkers, auto-driver’s children, tutors them, and provides study materials and lodging for a year. He prepares them for the Joint Entrance Examination for the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT). His mother, Jayanti Devi, cooks for the students, and his brother Pranav Kumar takes care of the management.

When he was 15 years old, he obtained a copy of George Shoobridge Carr’s

*Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics,*2 vol. (1880–86). This collection of thousands of theorems, many presented with only the briefest of proofs and with no material newer than 1860, aroused his genius. Having verified the results in Carr’s book, Ramanujan went beyond it, developing his own theorems and ideas. In 1903 he secured a scholarship to the University of Madras but lost it the following year because he neglected all other studies in pursuit of mathematics.Ramanujan continued his work, without employment and living in the poorest circumstances. After marrying in 1909 he began a search for permanent employment that culminated in an interview with a government official, Ramachandra Rao. Impressed by Ramanujan’s mathematical prowess, Rao supported his research for a time, but Ramanujan, unwilling to exist on charity, obtained a clerical post with the Madras Port Trust.

In 1911 Ramanujan published the first of his papers in the

*Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society*. His genius slowly gained recognition, and in 1913 he began a correspondence with the British mathematician Godfrey H. Hardy that led to a special scholarship from the University of Madras and a grant from Trinity College, Cambridge. Overcoming his religious objections, Ramanujan traveled to England in 1914, where Hardy tutored him and collaborated with him in some research.Ramanujan’s knowledge of mathematics (most of which he had worked out for himself) was startling. Although he was almost completely unaware of modern developments in mathematics, his mastery ofcontinued fractions was unequaled by any living mathematician. He worked out the Riemann series, the elliptic integrals, hypergeometric series, the functional equations of the zeta function, and his own theory of divergent series. On the other hand, he knew nothing of doubly periodic functions, the classical theory of quadratic forms, or Cauchy’s theorem, and he had only the most nebulous idea of what constitutes a mathematical proof. Though brilliant, many of his theorems on the theory of prime numbers were wrong.

In England Ramanujan made further advances, especially in the partition of numbers (the number of ways that a positive integer can be expressed as the sum of positive integers; e.g., 4 can be expressed as 4, 3 + 1, 2 + 2, 2 + 1 + 1, and 1 + 1 + 1 + 1). His papers were published in English and European journals, and in 1918 he was elected to the Royal Society of London. In 1917 Ramanujan had contracted tuberculosis, but his condition improved sufficiently for him to return to India in 1919. He died the following year, generally unknown to the world at large but recognized by mathematicians as a phenomenal genius, without peer since Leonhard Euler (1707–83) and Carl Jacobi (1804–51). Ramanujan left behind three notebooks and a sheaf of pages (also called the “lost notebook”) containing many unpublished results that mathematicians continued to verify long after his death.

(sdource: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Srinivasa-Ramanujan)