Enjoy light reading

 

 

  • An Ancient Zoroastrian City.

     

    A very interesting  video from History Channel

    An Ancient Zoroastrian City

    (contributed by: Mohan Rao on 12.12.2011)

  • Wives

    Some wives shop 7 days a week while their husbands work 5 days a week.

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    When his wife nags the civilized man goes to a club instead of reaching for one.

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    The only times when wives usually treat husbands better than pets is when he is sick.

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    Husbands are like wood fires. When unattended they go out.

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    A man may be in trouble because his wife walked out on him, or because she walked in on him.

     

    ( source : Family Humour Book by Stephen W.K.Tan)

  • Bahubali Religious Place.

     

    Bahubali Religious Place

    Bahubali/ಬಾಹುಬಲಿ (English: One With Strong Arms), a much revered figure among Jains, was the son of Adinath, the first tirthankara of Jainism, and the younger brother of Bharata Chakravartin. He is said to have meditated motionless for one year in a standing posture (kayotsarga) and that during this time, climbing plants grew around his legs. After his year of meditation, Bahubali is said to have attained omniscience (Kevala Gyana). According to Jain texts, Bahubali attained liberation from the cycle of births and deaths (moksha) at Mount Kailash and is revered as a liberated soul (Siddha) by the Jains.

    Bahubali is also called Gommateshwara/ಗೊಮ್ಮಟೇಶ್ವರ because of the Gommateshwara statue dedicated to him. The statue was built by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander Chavundaraya; it is a 57-foot (17 m) monolith (statue carved from a single piece of rock) situated above a hill in Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district, Karnataka state, India. It was built in around 981 A.D. and is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world.

    Family life[edit]

    According to Jain texts, Bahubali was born to Rishabhanatha and Sunanda during the Ikshvaku dynasty in Ayodhya. He is said to have excelled in studying medicine, archery, floriculture, and the knowledge of precious gems. Bahubali had a son named Somakirti (also known as Mahabala). When Rishabhanatha decided to become a monk, he distributed his kingdom among his 100 sons. Bharata was gifted the kingdom of Vinita (Ayodhya) and Bahubali got the kingdom of Asmaka from South India, having Podanapur as its capital. After winning six divisions of earth in all directions (digvijaya), Bharata proceeded to his capital Ayodhyapuri with a huge army and divine chakra-ratna—spinning, disk-like super weapon with serrated edges. But the chakra-ratna stopped on its own at the entrance of Ayodhyapuri, signalling to the emperor that his 99 brothers have yet not submitted to his authority. Bharata’s 98 brothers became Jain monks’ and submitted their kingdoms to him. Bahubali was endowed with the final and superior body of extraordinary sturdiness and strength (vajra-ṛṣabhanārācasaṃhanana) like Bharata. He hurled open defiance at the chakravartin and challenged him to a fight.

    The ministers on both sides gave the following argument to prevent war; “The brothers themselves, cannot be killed by any means; they are in their last incarnations in transmigration, and possess bodies which no weapon may mortally wound in warfare! Let them fight out the issue by themselves in other ways.” It was then decided that to settle the dispute, three kinds of contests between Bharata and Bahubali would be held. These were eye-fight (staring at each other), water-fight (jala-yuddha), and wrestling (malla-yuddha). Bahubali won all the three contests over his elder brother, Bharata.

    Renunciation

    Sculpture depicting Bahubali’s meditation in Kayotsarga posture with vines enveloped around his body (Photo: Badami caves)

    After the fight, Bahubali was filled with disgust at the world and developed a desire for renunciation. Bahubali abandoned his clothes and kingdom to become a Digambara monk and began meditating with great resolve to attain omniscience (Kevala Gyana).

    He is said to have meditated motionless in a standing posture (kayotsarga) for a year, during which time climbing plants grew around his legs. However, he was adamant and continued his practice unmindful of the vines, ants, and dust that enveloped his body. According to Jain text Ādi purāṇa, on the last day of Bahubali’s one year long fast, Bharata came in all humility to Bahubali and worshiped him with veneration and respect. A painful regret that he had been the cause of his elder brother’s humiliation had been disturbing Bahubali’s meditation; this was dispersed when Bharata worshipped him. Bahubali was then able to destroy the four kinds of inimical karmas, including the knowledge obscuring karma, and he attained omniscience (kevala gyana). He was now revered as an omniscient being (Kevali). Bahubali finally attained liberation (moksha) and became a pure, liberated soul (siddha). He is said to be the first Digambara monk to have attained moksha in the present half-cycle of time (Avasarpiṇī).

     

    (source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahubali)

     

  • Cherries.

     

    Cherries

     

    Cherries
    Cherries
    Cherries boast a laundry list of healing powers. For starters, they pack a powerful nutritional punch for a relatively low calorie count. They’re also packed with substances that help fight inflammation and cancer. In lab studies, quercetin and ellagic acid, two compounds contained in cherries, have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors and even cause cancer cells to commit suicide. Cherries also have antiviral and antibacterial properties.
    Anthocyanin (what’s that?), another compound in cherries, is credited with lowering the uric acid levels in the blood, thereby reducing a common cause of gout. Researchers believe anthocyanins may also reduce your risk of colon cancer. Further, these compounds work like a natural form of ibuprofen, reducing inflammation and curbing pain. Regular consumption may help lower risk of heart attack and stroke.
    In Chinese medicine, cherries are routinely used as a remedy for gout, arthritis and rheumatism (as well as anemia, due to their high iron content). Plus they’re delicious.

    How much: Aim for a daily serving while they’re in season locally. And keep a bag of frozen cherries in your freezer the rest of the year; frozen cherries retain 100 percent of their nutritional value and make a great addition to smoothies, yogurt and oatmeal.

     

    (source:http://health.msn.com/health-topics/pain-management/fibromyalgia/slideshow.aspx?cp-documentid=100256169&imageindex=3)

  • Tension Headache

    A tension headache (renamed a tension-type headache by the International Headache Society in 1988) is the most common type of primary headache. The pain can radiate from the neck, back, eyes, or other muscle groups in the body. Tension-type headaches account for nearly 90% of all headaches. Approximately 3% of the population has chronic tension-type headaches.

    ( more at : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tension_headache )

  • Titles of Lord Krishna.

     

     Titles of Lord Krishna

     

    14th century Fresco of Krishna on interior wall City Palace, Udaipur

    The Sanskrit word kṛṣṇa is primarily an adjective meaning “black”, “dark” or “dark-blue”.  sometimes it is also translated as “all attractive”. It is cognate with Slavic čьrnъ “black”. As a feminine noun, kṛṣṇā is used in the meaning “night, blackness, darkness” in the Rigveda, and as a demon or spirit of darkness in RV 4.16.13. As a proper noun, Kṛṣṇa occurs in RV 8.85.3 as the name of a poet. In the Lalitavistara Sutra, Krishna is the chief of the black demons, the enemies of the Buddha. As a name of Vishnu, Krishna listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is often depicted in murtis as black or blue-skinned.

    Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets and titles, which reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Govinda, “finder of cows”, or Gopala, “protector of cows”, which refer to Krishna’s childhood in Vraja. Some of the distinct names may be regionally important; for instance, Jagannatha (literally “Lord of the Universe”), a popular deity of Puri in eastern India.

     Iconography

    Krishna with cows, herdsmen and Gopis, Pahari painting [Himalayan] from Smithsonian Institution

    Krishna is easily recognized by his representations. Though his skin colour may be depicted as black or dark in some representations, particularly in murtis, in other images such as modern pictorial representations, Krishna is usually shown with blue skin. He is often shown wearing a yellow silk dhoti and peacock feather crown. Common depictions show him as a little boy, or as a young man in a characteristic relaxed pose, playing the flute. In this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other and raises a flute to his lips, known as Tribhangi Mudra, accompanied by cows, emphasizing his position as the divine herdsman, Govinda, or with the gopis (milkmaids).

    Bala Krishna dancing, sculpture from National Museum, New Delhi.

    The scene on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, notably where he addresses Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita, is another common subject for representation. In these depictions, he is shown as a man, often with typical god-like characteristics of Hindu religious art, such as multiple arms or heads, denoting power, and with attributes of Vishnu, such as the chakra or in his two-armed form as a charioteer.

    A 800 BС cave paintings in Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, North India, which show raiding horse-charioteers, one of whom is about to hurl such a wheel could potentially be identified as Krishna.

    Krishna and Radha – Brooklyn Museum

    Representations in temples often show Krishna as a man standing in an upright, formal pose. He may be alone, or with associated figures:his brother Balarama and sister Subhadra, or his main queens Rukmini and Satyabhama.

    Often, Krishna is pictured with his gopi-consort Radha. Manipuri Vaishnavas do not worship Krishna alone, but as Radha Krishna, a combined image of Krishna and Radha. This is also a characteristic of the schools Rudra and Nimbarka sampradaya, as well as that of Swaminarayan faith. The traditions celebrate Radha Ramana murti, who is viewed by Gaudiyas as a form of Radha Krishna.

    Krishna is also depicted and worshipped as a small child (Bala Krishna, bāla kṛṣṇa the child Krishna), crawling on his hands and knees or dancing, often with butter or Laddu in his hand being Laddu Gopal.[22][23] Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha of Orissa, Vithoba of Maharashtra  and Shrinathji in Rajasthan.

    Yashoda bathing the child Krishna. (Western Indian illustrated Bhagavata Purana Manuscript)

    The earliest text to explicitly provide detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahābhārata which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu. Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book (Bhishma Parva) of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to the warrior-hero Arjuna, on the battlefield. Krishna is already an adult in the epic, although there are allusions to his earlier exploits. The Harivamsa, a later appendix to this epic, contains the earliest detailed version of Krishna’s childhood and youth.

    In early texts, such as Rig Veda, there are no references to Krishna, however some, like Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar attempted to show that “the very same Krishna” made an appearance, e.g. as the drapsa … krishna “black drop” of RV 8.96.13. Some authors have also likened prehistoric depictions of deities to Krishna.

    Chandogya Upanishad (3.17.6) Composed around 900BC-700BC[citation needed] mentions Vasudeva Krishna

    as the son of Devaki and the disciple of Ghora Angirasa , the seer who preached his disciple the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya.’ Having been influenced by the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya’ Krishna in the Bhagavadgita while delivering the discourse to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra discussed about sacrifice, which can be compared to purusha or the individual.

    Yāska’s Nirukta, an etymological dictionary around 6th century BC, contains a reference to the Shyamantaka jewel in the possession of Akrura, a motif from well known Puranic story about Krishna.[26] Shatapatha Brahmana and Aitareya-Aranyaka, associate Krishna with his Vrishni origins.

    Pāṇini, the ancient grammarian and author of Asthadhyayi (probably belonged to 5th century or 6th century BC) mentions a character called Vāsudeva, son of Vasudeva, and also mentions Kaurava and Arjuna which testifies to Vasudeva Krishna, Arjuna and Kauravas being contemporaries.

    Megasthenes (350 – 290 BC) a Greek ethnographer and an ambassador of Seleucus I to the court of Chandragupta Maurya mentioned about Herakles in his famous work Indica. Many scholars have suggested that the deity identified as Herakles was Krishna. According to Arrian, Diodorus, and Strabo, Megasthenes described an Indian tribe called Sourasenoi, who especially worshipped Herakles in their land, and this land had two cities, Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river, the Jobares. As was common in the ancient period, the Greeks sometimes described foreign gods in terms of their own divinities, and there is a little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the Yadu dynasty to which Krishna belonged; Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna: Mehtora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning “the city of Krishna”; and the Jobares to the Yamuna, the famous river in the Krishna story. Quintus Curtius also mentions that when Alexander the Great confronted Porus, Porus’s soldiers were carrying an image of Herakles in their vanguard.

    The name Kṛishṇa occurs in Buddhist writings in the form Kaṇha, phonetically equivalent to Kṛishṇa.

    The Ghata-Jâtaka (No. 454) gives an account of Kṛishṇa’s childhood and subsequent exploits which in many points corresponds with the Brahmanic legends of his life and contains several familiar incidents and names, such as Vâsudeva, Baladeva, Kaṃsa. Yet it presents many peculiarities and is either an independent version or a misrepresentation of a popular story that had wandered far from its home. Jain tradition also shows that these tales were popular and were worked up into different forms, for the Jains have an elaborate system of ancient patriarchs which includes Vâsudevas and Baladevas. Kṛishṇa is the ninth of the Black Vâsudevas and is connected with Dvâravatî or Dvârakâ. He will become the twelfth tîrthankara of the next world-period and a similar position will be attained by Devakî, Rohinî, Baladeva and Javakumâra, all members of his family. This is a striking proof of the popularity of the Kṛishṇa legend outside the Brahmanic religion.

    According to Arthasastra of Kautilya (4th centuries CE) Vāsudeva was worshiped as supreme Deity in a strongly monotheistic format.

    Around 150 BC, Patanjali in his Mahabhashya quotes a verse: “May the might of Krishna accompanied by Samkarshana increase!” Other verses are mentioned. One verse speaks of “Janardana with himself as fourth” (Krishna with three companions, the three possibly being Samkarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha). Another verse mentions musical instruments being played at meetings in the temples of Rama (Balarama) and Kesava (Krishna). Patanjali also describes dramatic and mimetic performances (Krishna-Kamsopacharam) representing the killing of Kamsa by Vasudeva.

    In the 1st century BC, there seems to be evidence for a worship of five Vrishni heroes (Balarama, Krishna, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Samba) for an inscription has been found at Mora near Mathura, which apparently mentions a son of the great satrap Rajuvula, probably the satrap Sodasa, and an image of Vrishni, “probably Vasudeva, and of the “Five Warriors”. Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the Mathura Museum.

    Many Puranas tell Krishna’s life-story or some highlights from it. Two Puranas, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana, that contain the most elaborate telling of Krishna’s story and teachings are the most theologically venerated by the Vaishnava schools. Roughly one quarter of the Bhagavata Purana is spent extolling his life and philosophy.

     

    (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna)

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  • 1954 – Hindi Video Songs – Nagin




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